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Guide Mussolini (Italian Edition)

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When Mussolini came to power, in , he was leading a new movement in a country with a formidable cultural patrimony, and he knew that he needed a multitude of markers to imprint the Fascist ideology on the landscape. Public projects, such as the Foro Mussolini sports complex, in Rome, were meant to rival those of the Medici and the Vatican, while the likeness of Il Duce, as Mussolini was known, watched over Italians in the form of statues, photographs in offices, posters at tram stops, and even prints on bathing suits.

Marble statues of male athletes, erected in the Fascist era, at the Stadio dei Marmi in the Foro Italico sports complex, in Rome. In Germany, a law enacted in against Nazi apologism, which banned Hitler salutes and other public rituals, facilitated the suppression of Third Reich symbols. Ridding Italy of thousands of Fascist memorials would have been impractical, and politically imprudent, for the Allied forces whose priority was to stabilize the volatile country and limit the power of its growing Communist Party. This approach set a precedent.

The Scelba Law was designed to block the reconstitution of the Fascist Party and was famously vague about everything else. This means that, when Berlusconi brought the right-wing Italian Social Movement Party to power, his rehabilitation of Fascism was aided by an existing network of pilgrimage sites and monuments. It would be hard to imagine Angela Merkel standing in front of a painting of Hitler on a similar occasion. In , Ettore Viri, the right-wing mayor of Affile, included a memorial to General Rodolfo Graziani, a Nazi collaborator and an accused war criminal, in a park built with funds approved by the center-left regional government.

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After a public outcry, the government rescinded the funds. Recently, Viri was charged with Fascist apologism, but the memorial remains in place.

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In Predappio, a new Museum of Fascism is currently under construction. While working for various labour organizations in Switzerland, Benito Mussolini made a name for himself as a charismatic personality and a consummate rhetorician. After returning to Italy, he amassed a large following while working as an editor for the socialist magazine Avanti!

Mussolini and Fascist Italy

His political beliefs took a hairpin turn to the right midway through World War I , when he stopped decrying the war effort and began advocating for it. After World War I he began organizing fasci di combattimento —nationalist paramilitary forces known for wearing black shirts. In Mussolini and other fascist leaders organized a march on Rome with the intention of forcing the king to yield the government to Mussolini.

It worked, and Mussolini was appointed prime minister that same year. His father was an ardent socialist who worked part-time as a journalist for leftist publications. It was during this period, and after, that the nationalist and anti- Bolshevik strands of thought that would characterize his later politics began to emerge.

These politics included the themes of racial superiority, xenophobia, and imperialism that defined his actions as a dictator.

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Benito Mussolini was the less dominant half of the Rome-Berlin axis , formalized by the Pact of Steel between Adolf Hitler and himself. Anxious that he would lose claim to conquered European lands as Hitler advanced, Mussolini entered the war in Italy fared poorly from the outset, with ignominious defeats in North Africa, Greece, and the Soviet Union.

Benito Mussolini was born to a poor family in Predappio, a town in northeastern Italy. His father was a blacksmith who wrote part-time as a socialist journalist, and his mother was a staunchly Catholic schoolteacher. As an adult, Benito Mussolini would have two wives and many mistresses. He had one child with his first wife, Ida Dalser, but would eventually abandon them and seek to hide them from the public eye. He would have five children—three boys and two girls—by another wife, Rachele Guidi. It was alongside his longtime mistress, Clara Petacci, that he died, however.


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The two were executed in by Italian partisans as they tried to escape to Switzerland, and their bodies were hung upside down in Milan. Mussolini was the first child of the local blacksmith. A restless child, Mussolini was disobedient, unruly, and aggressive.

gruzovye-podkovy.ru/profiles/mejor-precio-hidroxicloroquina-200mg-nombre-genrico.php He was a bully at school and moody at home. Because the teachers at the village school could not control him, he was sent to board with the strict Salesian order at Faenza, where he proved himself more troublesome than ever, stabbing a fellow pupil with a penknife and attacking one of the Salesians who had attempted to beat him.

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He was also intelligent, and he passed his final examinations without difficulty. He obtained a teaching diploma and for a time worked as a schoolmaster but soon realized that he was totally unsuited for such work. At the age of 19, a short, pale young man with a powerful jaw and enormous, dark, piercing eyes, he left Italy for Switzerland with a nickel medallion of Karl Marx in his otherwise empty pockets.


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For the next few months, according to his own account, he lived from day to day, jumping from job to job. At the same time, however, he was gaining a reputation as a young man of strange magnetism and remarkable rhetorical talents.