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Participants drew attention to the fact that the reaction of the lied-to upon discovery of the lie depends on the type of the lie and its significance. As one of the participants stated "what kind of lie it is, and whether it affects an important area of life. Based on the emerging themes we decided to develop a theoretical proposal clarifying the process of the response of the lied-to when a lie is discovered. The estimation of 1. They showed that the perceived importance of lying was related to the increase in emotional intensity of the reaction of a discovered lie. Turning to the type of lie, an egoistic lie has the potential to provoke a negative reaction in both the emotional and cognitive-behavioral spheres, while the forms of protective lies self-defensive and sheltering are rather connected to the plausibility of a positive reaction or a crisis with both the potential to heal and to destroy a relationship.

Moreover, a factor that may contribute to the possible positive effect of lie on a relationship is the capacity to understand what happened and why a lie was told. This seems to suggest that open communication about lies can take part in changing the long-term consequences generated by them.

These moderators and their possible impact on the consequences of lying are presented in Figure 2. Although this model needs to be tested empirically both qualitatively quantitatively , a member of the research team who was not engaged in theme identification tested the credibility of the findings by examining whether the model fits to the verbal data. Figure 2: A theoretical proposal clarifying the process of a response of the lied-to with themes and sub-themes that may serve as moderators of the reaction to lying [ 36 ].

Qualitative analysis of interviews about lying has led to some theoretical developments. We have proposed an extension of the typology of lies presented in the existing literature, particularly by addressing the motivational dimension in distinguishing types of lies. Defensive, sheltering and egoistic types of motivations to lie were identified as the most distinct there are quite clear criteria that allow for distinctions between them and vivid the types mentioned were very prevalent in the text corpus categories.

They also appeared in thematic analyses of other portions of the verbal material. What is more, we found that they serve regulatory functions modifying the reaction to a lie consequences. The protective aspect of lying proved to be an important one for study participants, which is interesting considering the general opinion that people lie mainly for personal benefit.

This claim is in line with the protective motivation for lying that can be identified from the findings of COLE He proved that one of the motivations to lie in a relationship is to avoid punishment. It turns out that the perceptions of research participants also demonstrate that a factor inducing us to tell lies is the desire to avoid losses, particularly those of an immaterial, psychological nature; both on the part of the liar, such as the avoidance of criticism, changes to one's own self-image or image in the eyes of others and the hiding of feelings, as well as on the part of the lied-to, such as the desire to avoid causing someone discomfort or sorrow.

We feel that this observation is of particular importance, and is rarely emphasized in the scientific literature concerning lying. In our view focusing on such types of lies may be interesting in future research on lying and detection of lies. Moreover, we propose a list of potential moderators of lying consequences. Namely, the type of a lie, its significance and the capacity to understand the liar's rationale can serve as factors leading to different consequences when a lie is caught. The presence of an egoistic lie was associated with a negative reaction on the part of the target of the lie, which is consistent with the previously referenced studies by INGLEHART et al.

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However, if the lie was other-oriented sheltering or self-protective, the consequences were depicted as less harmful and moral judgement was not as harsh. Thus we confirmed that those categories were theoretically and empirically useful, and therefore they should not be omitted in future research. In our opinion, these theoretical considerations can contribute to future qualitative and quantitative research on the subject of lying. Qualitative thematic analysis, especially in its inductive version, has many limitations and potentialities that often interpenetrate, which should be taken into consideration when processing and applying the findings of the study at hand.


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Although we emphasize the insider perspective, the balance between emic and etic perspectives see e. OLIVE, in knowledge forming is a crucial issue in the practice of good science. The sample both people who lie often and who resist lying , data gathering methods a semi-structured interview composed primarily of open questions with an in-depth orientation , and analysis methods both deductive and inductive thematic content analysis at the explicit level of utterance are mutually compatible.


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We obtained diverse responses that helped us to understand lying as a daily life activity, which we collated thematically into meaningful units and then explained in the light of theoretical knowledge on the phenomenon of lying. However, we did not stop with the thematic map of each explored topic; rather, we tried to make use of the themes and indicate their possible hypothetical application in theoretical considerations. Below we detail what we feel are the most significant methodological issues.

First, we decided to diversify the data collecting different opinions from people whose lying activity differed in frequency by obtaining text material from both a rare and a frequent liars group. This decision supplied us with rich material based on nine interviews, but we still do not know if we covered the phenomena fully, i. We did, however, notice that some descriptions and opinions recur in the sample.

Nevertheless, every interview provided portrayals of unique experiences and opinions. At the same time, the limited number of interviews allowed us to analyze all of the texts thoroughly every piece of text was coded and to conduct an in-depth examination of lying as a daily life activity from the participants' point of view. Nevertheless, tables and graphs present maps of themes and thus in this context psychological meanings that emerge when people are encouraged to analyze the lying activity of their daily lives.

This leads to the belief that 1. This is related to a third issue, namely, a type of sampling bias that was evident here. Participants had been subjected to reflections on the topic of lying in daily life prior to participation in the interview. As a result, the map of themes derives from reflective and familiarized with the subject persons.

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In some instances, however, the interview might have been influenced by a defensive attitude, which is possible in the case of such an ethically involved topic. We do not insist that the findings characterize the general population in any manner, but we strongly believe that they characterize the phenomenon of lying theoretical generalizability, see e. The findings are not complete but they fill in significant gaps in the existing literature on lying in interpersonal relations.

At the same time, the sample bias is an advantage—it probably helped to collect research material that was deepened by reflection, which in turn influenced the validation of the findings topic-oriented statements, familiarized topic. The research presented here also has social and cultural limitations e. When collecting qualitative data, we endeavored to avoid forcing our own views of the research area on our subjects, while joining in the reflective process of the participants as broadly as possible DAY, ; SILVERMAN, We were very concerned with observing ethical standards in our research due to the delicate nature of the subject matter, and we took great care to ensure the anonymity of research participants as well as a judgment-free environment during the study.

Importantly, our findings have several possible future applications.

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It would be interesting to verify whether the protective versus beneficial aspect of lies interferes with its relationship to self-regulation processes. Future studies may also focus on characterizing the cognitive and emotional aspects of using the four types of lies. These in turn can also be important in the area of lying detection.

Moderators of reactions to lying can be further investigated by research on interpersonal relations, which may prove to be a very interesting quantitative approach to the consequences of lying. To sum up, the article presents an interesting insight on the motivations and consequences of lying. Although derived from an insider's perspective, this insight was elaborated through reference to current theories on lying. We offer an extension of the typology of lies that can provide grounds for further qualitative and quantitative research on the subject, and we highlight the richness of the psychological context of motivation to lie along with a processual view of the reaction to a discovery of a lie.

We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for the comments they made on the first version of this article. Aronson, Elliot The social animal. New York: Worth Publishers Inc. Baker, Kimberly M. Developing focus group research: Politics, theory and practice. London: Sage. Baskerville, Richard Deferring generalizability: Four classes of generalization in social enquiry. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems , 8 2 , Baumeister, Roy F. The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation.

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Psychological Bulletin , 3 , Bendassolli, Pedro F. Theory building in qualitative research: Reconsidering the problem of induction. Diary methods: Capturing life as it is lived. Annual Review of Psychology , 54 , Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology , 3 , Interpersonal deception theory.

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Communication Theory , 6 3 , Cantarero, Katarzyna Too tired to taint the truth. Ego-depletion reduces other-benefiting dishonesty. European Journal of Social Psychology , 44 7 , Cialdini, Robert B. A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 58 6 , Cole, Tim Lying to the one you love: The use of deception in romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships , 18 1 , Prototype semantics: The English word lie.

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