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Our programs have thrived because more than talking we listen to the experts themselves—the youth. Finding out what they want, how they think programs should be designed, and what we can improve upon has been our ongoing focus. As we embarked upon this project, however, we knew that we needed to consult other experts in the field to substantiate and enhance what we knew from our experience. We reviewed developmental theories, sought to gain a better understanding of the brain, and explored the ways in which supporting youth in the arts could aid in their growth process.

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All of this was directed toward the goals of 1 developing a framework that could best explain the work we do, and 2 creating tools that could assess the indicators and the outcomes in the framework. The following section provides a brief review of adolescence as a stage of life and some of the latest findings about the brains of adolescents. Both topics help to elucidate the necessity of addressing the specific needs of youth in our work and the ways in which youth arts development programs are ideally suited to address these needs.

Stanley Hall, was credited with discovering adolescence Henig, , p. Because of the influence of Child Labor Laws and universal education, youth had newfound time in their teenage years when the responsibilities of adulthood were not forced upon them as quickly as in the past. Stanley Hall, He identified three key aspects of this phase: mood disruptions, conflict with parents, and risky behavior. Other work appearing in the late s through the s in Europe and America helped adolescence emerge as a field of study important earlier work by Freud, Piaget, Maslow, and Kohlberg also addressed stages of development.

Erikson , pp. Erikson looked at life in eight stages. We felt that our age group of year-olds actually struggled with the following three stages:. Psychosocial Stage 4 — Industry vs. Inferiority, age Main Question: Am I successful or not? Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities.

Psychosocial Stage 5 — Identity vs. Confusion, age Main Question: Who am I and where am I going?

1100 06.1 - Adolescence - Physical Development

During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self. Psychosocial Stage 6 — Intimacy vs. Isolation, age Main Questions: Am I loved and wanted? Should I share my life with someone or live alone? This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships. In , Peter Blos published a book titled On Adolescence. Blos, a German-born American child psychoanalyst, was known as Mr.

chapter 03 adolescent growth Manual

While estradiol promotes growth of the breasts and uterus , it is also the principal hormone driving the pubertal growth spurt and epiphyseal maturation and closure. The hormonal maturation of females is considerably more complicated than in boys. The main steroid hormones , testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone as well as prolactin play important physiological functions in puberty. Gonadal steroidgenesis in girls starts with production of testosterone which is typically quickly converted to estradiol inside the ovaries. Production of progesterone in the ovaries begins with the development of ovulatory cycles in girls during the lutheal phase of the cycle , before puberty low levels of progesterone are produced in the adrenal glands of both boys and girls.

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Puberty is preceded by adrenarche , marking an increase of adrenal androgen production between ages 6— Adrenarche is sometimes accompanied by the early appearance of axillary and pubic hair. The first androgenic hair resulting from adrenarche can be also transient and disappear before the onset of true puberty. The cause of the GnRH rise is unknown. Leptin might be the cause of the GnRH rise. Leptin has receptors in the hypothalamus which synthesizes GnRH. The rise in GnRH might also be caused by genetics.

A study [25] discovered that a mutation in genes encoding both Neurokinin B as well as the Neurokinin B receptor can alter the timing of puberty. The researchers hypothesized that Neurokinin B might play a role in regulating the secretion of Kisspeptin , a compound responsible for triggering direct release of GnRH as well as indirect release of LH and FSH.

Several studies about puberty have examined the effects of an early or a late onset of puberty in males and females. In general, girls who enter puberty late experience positive outcomes in adolescence and adulthood while girls who enter puberty early experience negative outcomes. Boys who have earlier pubertal timing generally have more positive outcomes in adulthood but more negative outcomes in adolescence, while the reverse is true for later pubertal timing. Outcomes have generally indicated that early onset of puberty in girls can be psychologically damaging. The main reason for this detrimental effect is the issue of body image.

As they physically develop, gaining weight in several areas of the body, early-maturing girls usually look larger than girls who have not yet entered puberty. A result of the social pressure to be thin, the early-maturing girls develop a negative view of their body image. In addition, people may tease the girls about their visible breasts, forcing the early-maturing girl to hide her breasts by dressing differently. Embarrassment about a more developed body may also result in the refusal to undress for gym.

These experiences lead to lower self-esteem, more depression and poorer body image in these early-maturing girls. Furthermore, as physical and emotional differences set them apart from people in their same age group, early-maturing girls develop relationships with older people. For instance, some early-maturing girls have older boyfriends, "attracted to the girls' womanly physique and girlish innocence. Generally, later onset of puberty in girls produces positive outcomes. They exhibit positive behaviors in adolescence that continue to adulthood. In the past, early onset of puberty in boys has been associated with positive outcomes, such as leadership in high school and success in adulthood.

Early-maturing boys develop "more aggressive, law-breaking, and alcohol abusing" behaviors, which result in anger towards parents and trouble in school and with the police.


Early puberty also correlates with increased sexual activity and a higher instance of teenage pregnancy, both of which can lead to depression and other psychosocial issues. On the other hand, late-maturing boys develop lower self-esteem and confidence and generally have lower popularity among peers, due to their less-developed physiques. Also, they experience problems with anxiety and depression and are more likely to be afraid of sex than other boys.

In boys, testicular enlargement is the first physical manifestation of puberty and is termed gonadarche. The size of the testicles is among the parameters of the Tanner scale for male genitals , from stage I which represents a volume of less than 1. Testicular size reaches maximal adult size about 6 years after the onset of puberty.

The testes have two primary functions: to produce hormones and to produce sperm. The Leydig cells produce testosterone , which in turn produces most of the male pubertal changes.

Most of the increasing bulk of testicular tissue is spermatogenic tissue primarily Sertoli and Leydig cells. By the end of puberty, adult men have heavier bones and nearly twice as much skeletal muscle. Some of the bone growth e.

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Case study: Improving nutrition outcomes for adolescent girls in Ethiopia

This muscle develops mainly during the later stages of puberty, and muscle growth can continue even after boys are biologically adult. The peak of the so-called "strength spurt", the rate of muscle growth, is attained about one year after a male experiences his peak growth rate. Often, the fat pads of the male breast tissue and the male nipples will develop during puberty; sometimes, especially in one breast, this becomes more apparent and is termed gynecomastia. It is usually not a permanent phenomenon.